The Effects of Standard Care Counseling or Telephone/In-Person Counseling on Beliefs, Knowledge, and Behavior Related to Mammography Screening

mammography, beliefs, behavior
ONF 2000, 27(10), 1565-1571. DOI:
Purpose/Objectives: To determine the most effective methods of increasing mammography adherence while also considering ease of intervention delivery in evolving healthcare systems. 
Design: Experimental. 
Setting: Women from a health maintenance organi­zation and a large general medicine practice. 
Sample: Women 50-85 years of age who had not had breast cancer and did not have a mammogram within the last 15 months. 
Methods: Once consent and baseline information were obtained, women were randomized to receive in-­person, telephone, or no mammography counseling. 
Main Research Variables: Mammography adher­ence, perception of susceptibility to breast cancer, and benefits, barriers to, and knowledge of mammography. 
Findings: Compared to standard care, telephone counseling was more than twice as effective at increas­ing mammography adherence, whereas in-person counseling resulted in almost three times the mammog­raphy adherence postintervention. Both telephone and in-person counseling are successful in changing per­ceived susceptibility, knowledge, barriers, and benefits. 
Conclusion: Both telephone and in-person counsel­ing interventions were successful in changing beliefs, which, in turn, increased mammography adherence. 
Implications for Nursing Practice: Interventions based on altering beliefs are effective for increasing mam­mography adherence. 


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