Barriers and Facilitators to Cancer Screening Among LGBTQ Individuals With Cancer

Kelly Haviland

Shannon Swette

Teresa J. Kelechi

Martina Mueller

integrative review, LGBTQ populations, cancer screening, sexual and gender minorities
ONF 2020, 47(1), 44-55. DOI: 10.1188/20.ONF.44-55

Problem Identification: Cancer screening may reduce mortality and frequency of the disease. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) individuals are less likely than non-LGBTQ individuals to present for cancer screening.

Literature Search: A literature search was performed using CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, and PubMed®. Articles were included if they were published in English from 2008 to 2018 and addressed barriers or facilitators to cancer screening in LGBTQ populations.

Data Evaluation: Data were organized by thematic matrix and classified according to the multilevel influences on the cancer care continuum framework: individual patient, family and social supports, provider/team, organization and/or practice setting, local community environment, state health policy environment, and national health policy environment.

Synthesis: This integrative review found that the lack of cancer screening data and knowledge about screening guidelines by LGBTQ populations and providers were major barriers to cancer screening adherence. Provider-created welcoming environments and caregiver inclusion were facilitators.

Implications for Practice: Determinants of health-seeking behavior included patients’ and providers’ lack of cancer screening knowledge, as well as perceived discrimination. Nurses are in a unique position to provide cancer screening information and culturally sensitive care for LGBTQ populations with adequate education.

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